To better understand how this process works let me explain in more detail. The bacteria that are involved with gut pathology have been studied in ways that show how they initiate a response by the immune system. In most of these reports, there is the interaction of bacterial cell membrane and their ability to bind to cells of the urinary tract and other mucosal cells through D-mannose receptors. The cell wall of certain bacteria has tiny finger-like projections that contain complex molecules called lectins on their surface. These lectins provide cellular glue that binds the bacteria to the bladder wall so they cannot be easily rinsed out by urination. It is denoted as lectin binding to D-mannose. “The mannose receptor is a C-type lectin carbohydrate binding protein primarily present on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells." It helps recognize pathogens that have come in close contact to their surface, and triggers one pathway of the complement system. The function of this receptor is to recognize complex carbohydrates that are located on glycoproteins that are a part of many different biological processes. Some of those processes include cell-to-cell recognition, serum glycoprotein turnover, and neutralization of pathogens that cause UTI bladder or yeast infections.
Past studies have shown that in preventing or relieving symptoms of urinary tract infections with an effective amount of mannan oligosaccharide as in D-Mannose with cranberry pills or (powder form) simultaneously works extremely well among women and men. Other studies showed that adding just D-mannose (500mg) 2 or 3 times a day enhanced its own defense mechanisms by blocking the colonization and contact by pathogens. In this reason, mannan oligosaccharide, MOS functions as a probiotic (meaning for life) or symbiotic (meaning working with life). There are several products online that contain D-mannose (500mg) with cranberry (200mg) to help improve immune function and prevent chronic urinary tract infections among women. Here are a few good products:D-Mannose with Cran-Gyn DDS, Nature's Answer-UT Cranberry with Mannose and Pure encapsulation cranberry with D-mannose. Some may need powder form to increase the strength or dosage due to malabsorption issues. Some urologist may give the patient macrobid, an antibiotic taken before sexual intercouse as a preventative measure to prevent chronic cystitis or UTI infections in the bladder. However, you can prevent bladder infections naturally by taking ½ teaspoon of powder D-mannose with water prior to having intercourse, another ½ teaspoon shortly afterwards. D-mannose with cranberry works just as well as macrobid, if not better, without the side effects.
As a daily supplement and preventative take 1/2 teaspoon of D-mannose in water in the morning when you get up and another 1/2 teaspoon in water before you go to bed. Depending on your body's needs, you might need more or less D-mannose than me (everyone is different). I prefer both D-mannose with cranberry due to recent studies showing a synergistic effect on the urinary tract system.